Human Development spans a broad array of human endeavor that has attempted to understand why human beings do the things they do, grow the ways they do, and further what is the potential of human beings. People create these theories to help humans either deal with problems or to maximize learning and internal developments. From ancient times human development was the purvey of priests, shamans, yogis, and medicine people. Many mystical traditions are still practiced today of assisting humans in spiritual development. Towards the late nineteenth century, Western traditions began grappling with how people know and what fuels their thought processes and development. Since that time many traditions from Skinner’s operant conditioning to Piaget’s cognitive development to Roger’s humanism have proliferated. The nature-nurture controversy keeps flip flopping across time to where we are currently in a nature phase where neuroscience is allowing genetic mapping to correlate with mental illnesses, and all human thought or behavior “problems” are seen as a point of medication. Simultaneously, those in consciousness studies are integrating ancient traditions from Buddhism and Wicca to assist expanded consciousness states and access more of the mind’s power in the unconscious realms. Paradoxically, neuroscience overlaps this later trend with the field of psychoneuroimmunology showing the cellular physiological changes that can accompany altered states of consciousness created by ancient mystical practices.
Controversies in Human Development include: (1) positivist vs non positivist approaches. Are we only dealing with cognitive functioning or are affective and spiritual issues a part of how humans develop and behave? Included in this controversy are forms of knowledge for understanding others and oneself. Are rational forms enough, or is the intuitive central to this knowing? (2) is development a linear process? Most developmentalists are stage theories with different ends at the point of development (i.e., cognitive, moral, enlightenment, affective), but some are not stage theorists and focus on the quality of a current state of being, such as developing agency of voice (feminists) or the quality of the inner topography of being (Houston) or being authentic (Rogers); (3) what is the end product of human development? Each theorist has a different take on what humans are developing “to.” Students often mix apples and oranges when comparing different theories of development when the theorists are talking about very different things, such as confusing cognitive development with emotional development.
Through this KA, HOD students, can find principles of human development that they can use in making their work with other people more positive and effective. Many times in work settings motivation problems and resistance are created by not aligning with how humans naturally learn and communicate. Students can also use this information for their own healing and personal development, so they can refine themselves as an instrument in their own lived experience and work with others.
Historical Trends in Human Development
How personality is created and how to treat personality disorder
End Product: Emotional Health
External environment controls behavior
Watson, Pavlov, Skinner, Bandura evolved from this
End Product: Desired Behavior
Inner motivation propels development, goal is to create an environment that prompts this
Maslow, Rogers, Perls, Transpersonal evolved from this
End Product: Realized Human Potential, Health
How mental development happens, evolved into moral development as well, and sometimes includes lifespan development (although emotional development is part of Erikson”s work)
Piaget, Kohlberg, Kegan, Erikson, Vygotsky
End Product: intellectual function, reason, can vary with theorist
Stage Theorists, or Helix in Kegan”s Case
Voice and relational issues are central to development
Gilligan, Belenky, Horney
End Product: empowerment
VI. Jungian or Depth Psychology
Development of Self (capital S, as in spirit self) that is accomplished through bringing all elements into awareness even those in shadow, accomplishes individuation
Jung, Edinger, von Franz, Woodman
End Product: wholeness
Non-positivist, although dream work is quite analytical
Interested in studying altered states of consciousness which integrates Western humanistic psychology with Eastern spiritual practices
Wilber, Tart, Vaughn, Grof, Walsch
End product: Enlightenment
Positivist/Non-Positivist with Positivist leading
Wilber is a stage theorist
Exploration of expansion of human awareness, falls into brain physiology research and implications and the experienceof expanded states of awareness, includes psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), imagery, intuition, accelerated learning, healing
Houston, Achterberg, Nelson, Ornstein, Restak, Pert, Eliade, Harner, possibly Wicca ceremonies (Starhawk)
End product: Awareness
Non-Positivist/Positivist, a paradox of using science to understand non-rational experiences
Campbell, J. (Ed.) (1971). The portable Jung. New York. The Viking Press, Inc.
Chapter 5, The Relations Between the Ego & Unconscious, pp. 70-138. Chapter 6, Aion: Phenomenology of the Self, pp. 138-162 (The Ego, The Shadow, The Syzygy Anima/ Animus). Chapter 14, On Synchronicity, pp. 505-518. Model of consciousness beyond the individual and beyond time & space in the collective unconscious. Posits archetypes in the collective unconscious that drive and motivate us. Limits: Nazi sympathizer. Current criticism of Jungian thought as a “belief” system.
Jung, C. G. (1970). Analytical psychology: Its theory and practice. New York: Vintage.
Jung, C. G. (1964). Man and his symbols. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Edinger, E. (1992). Ego and archetype. Boston: Shambhala. highly recommended
von Franz, M-L, (1996). The interpretation of fairy tales. Boston: Shambhala. highly recommended
Woodman, M., & Dickson, E. (1996). Dancing in the flames: The dark goddess in personal transformation. Boston and London: Shambhala.
Freud, S. (1969). An outline of psycho-analysis. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Chapter 1, The Psychical Apparatus, pp. 1-13; Chapter 2, The Theory of the Instincts; Chapter 3, The Sexual Function. The existence of the unconscious. We are more than what we think. Effect of trauma on the organism. Importance of dreams. Limits: Patriarchal disease model of humans. Developmental model that can become deterministic.
Piaget, J. (1967). Six psychological studies. New York: Vintage Books. Nature vs nurture, p. 117, description of stages, pp. 122-127. Interactive model of human development in which environment catalyzes interiorized development stages. View that developmental changes include overall, fundamental shifts versus gradual change. Documents process by which cognitive structures change–assimilation (fitting new information into current structure or accommodation (radical new structure since information contradicts former one). Limits: Only dealt with rational scientific thought.
Rogers C. (1977). Carl Rogers on personal power. New York: Delacorte Press.
Rogers, C. (1961). On becoming a person: A therapist’s view of psychotherapy. New York: Merrill. highly recommended Created person-centered therapy to implement Maslow’s actualizing tendency concepts. Broke with disease model and moved to empowerment model. If a person is surrounded by positive regard and respect, the actualizing tendency or creative force inside a person will unfold and lead that person to growth. Limits: Personal autonomy not supported in some cultures.
Adler, A. (1971). The practice and theory of individual psychology. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul LTD. Individual Psychological Treatment of Neuroses, pp. 32-50. Precursor to current cognitive therapy that current dysfunctionality is related to incorrect belief system.
Adler, A. (1927). Understanding human nature: A key to self knowledge. Greenwich, CT: Fawett.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy. Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 82, 191-215.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy. Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.Psychological Review, 84, 191-205.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thoughted action. A social cognitive theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row. Founder of humanist psychology, moving psychology out of a disease model. Studied peak performers and postulated an actualizing tendency that leads humans toward positive growth moving through a need hierarchy from survival to transcendent.
Achterberg, J. (1985). Imagery in Healing: Shamanism and modern medicine. Boston: Shambhala. highly recommended Physiology and Biochemistry, pp. 113-142. Achterberg is brilliant in showing how imagery is the primitive language of the body and can effect all physiological function.
Hall, S. (1989, June). A molecular code links emotions, mind and health. Smithsonian, 63-71. Hardcore data on mind-body link.
Wechsler, B. (1987, February-April). A new prescription: Mind over malady. Discover, 51 -67.
Allen, P. A. (1986.) The sacred hoop: Recovering the feminine in American Indian Traditions. Boston: Beacon Press. A review of patriarchal archetypes in fiction and how American Indian stories bring a feminist, circular view to existence.
Cajete, Gregory. Look to the mountain: An ecology of indigenous education.
Strom, H. (1987). Seven arrows. New York: Harper Collins. Use of circle-wheel for understanding personality to achieve balance and harmony. Non-hierarchical model of personhood.
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D.(1990). Counseling the culturally different. New York: Wiley. Non-Eurocentric approaches to counseling, could generalize to communication as well.
Dalia Lama. (1990). A policy of kindness. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Iyengar, B. K. S. (1976). Light on yoga. Yoga dipika. New York: Schocken Books.
Kegan, J. (1982). The evolving self: Problem and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Macy, J. (1991). World as lover, world as self. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press. highly recommended
Nelson, A. (1993). Living the wheel: Working with emotions, terror and bliss with imagery. York Beach, ME: Weiser.
Rama, S., Ballentine, R., & Ajanja, S. (1976). Yoga and psychotherapy: The evolution of consciousness. Honesdale, PA: Himalayan International. The Mind: Ancient & Modern Concepts, p. 64-99. Explains Hindu mind divisions with the goal of development being Buddhi or wisdom.
Roszak, T., Gomes, M., & Kanner, A. (Eds.) (1995). Ecopscyhology: Restoring the earth healing the mind. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.
Schaup, S. (1997). Sophia: Aspects of the divine feminine:past and present. York Beach, ME: Nicolas-Hays, Inc. highly recommended
Vivekananda, S. (1956). Raja yoga. New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center.
Sheldrake, R. (1995). The hypothesis of a new science of life: Morphic resonance. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press.
Seghi, L. F. (1995). Glimpsing the moon, the feminine principle in Kabbalah. In E. Hoffman (Ed.), Opening the inner gates, new paths in Kabbalah and psychology. Boston: Shambhala.
Swan, J. A. (1992). Nature as teacher and healer. New York: Villard Publishing. Our basic personal and societal alienation and many psychological problems result from lack of connection to Earth. (OUT OF PRINT, ORDER THROUGH INTERLIBRARY)
Wilber, K. (1984). The developmental spectrum and psychopathology: Part 1, Stages and types of pathology. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 16(1), 75-118.